It is extremely rare that a hobby software project of mine gets completed, but now it has happened. Behold! Fourbyfour!

Have you ever had to implement a mathematical algorithm, say, matrix inversion? You want it to be fast and measuring the speed is fairly simple, right. But what about correctness? Or precision? Behavior around inputs that are on the edge? You can hand-pick a few example inputs, put those into your test suite, and verify the result is what you expect. If you do not pick only trivial inputs, this is usually enough to guarantee your algorithm does not have fundamental mistakes. But what about those almost invalid inputs, can you trust your algorithm to not go haywire on them? How close to invalid can your inputs be before things break down? Does your algorithm know when it stops working and tell you?

Inverting a square matrix requires that the inverse matrix exists to begin with. Matrices that do not mathematically have an inverse matrix are called singular. Can your matrix inversion algorithm tell you when you are trying to invert a matrix that cannot be inverted, or does it just give you a bad result pretending it is ok?

Working with computers often means working with floating-point numbers. With floating-point, the usual mathematics is not enough, it can actually *break down*. You calculate something and the result a computer gives you is total nonsense, like 1+2=2 in spirit. In the case of matrix inversion, it's not enough that the input matrix is not singular mathematically, it needs to be "nice enough" numerically as well. How do you test your matrix inversion algorithm with this in mind?

These questions I tried to answer with Fourbyfour. The README has the links to the sub-pages discussing how I solved this, so I will not repeat it here. However, as the TL;DR, if there is one thing you should remember, it is this:

** Do not use the matrix determinant to test if a matrix is invertible!**

Yes, the determinant is zero for a singular matrix. No, close to zero determinant does not tell you how close to singular the matrix is. There are better ways.

However, the conclusion I came to is that if you want a clear answer for a specific input matrix, is it invertible, the only way to know for sure is to actually invert it, multiply the input matrix with the inverse you computed, and measure how far off from the identity matrix it is. Of course, you also need to set a threshold, how close to identity matrix is close enough for your application, because with numerical algorithms, you will almost never get the exact answer. Also, pick an appropriate matrix norm for the matrix difference.

The reason for this conclusion is what one of the tools I wrote tells me about a matrix that would be typical for a display server with two full-HD monitors. The matrix is simply the pixel offset of the second monitor on the desktop. The analysis of the matrix is the example I used to demonstrate fourbyfour-analyse. If you read through it, you should be shocked. The mathematics, as far as I can understand, seems to tell us that if you use 32-bit floating-point, inverting this matrix gives us a result that leads to *no correct digits at all*. Obviously this is nonsense, the inverse is trivial and algorithms should give the exact correct result. However, the math does not lie (unless I did). If I did my research right, then what fourbyfour-analyse tells us is true, with an important detail: it is the *upper* error bound. It guarantees that we cannot get errors larger than that (heh, zero correct digits is pretty hard to make much worse). But I also read that there is no better error bound possible for *a generic matrix inversion algorithm*. (If you take the obvious-to-human constraints into account that those elements must be one and those must be zero, the analysis would likely be very different.) Therefore the only thing left to do is to actually go on with the matrix inversion and then verify the result.

Here is a list of the cool things the Fourbyfour project does or has:

- Generates random matrices arbitrarily close to singular in a controlled way. If you simply generated random matrices for testing, they would almost never be close to singular. With this code, you can define how close to singular you want the matrices to be, to really torture your inversion algorithms.
- Generates random matrices with a given determinant value. This is orthogonal to choosing how close to singular the generated matrices are. You can independently pick the determinant value and the condition number, and have the random matrices have both simultaneously.
- Plot a graph about a matrix inversion algorithm's behavior when inputs get closer to singular, to see exactly when it breaks down.
- A tutorial on how mathematical matrix notation works and how it relates to row- vs. column-major layouts (spoiler: it does not).
- A comparison between Graphene and Weston matrix inversion algorithms.

- Use Gitlab CI to run the test suite for the main branch, tags, and all merge requests, but not for other git branches.
- Use Freedesktop ci-templates to easily generate the Docker image in CI under which CI testing will run.
- Generate LCOV test code coverage report from CI.
- Use reuse lint tool in CI to ensure every single file has a defined, machine-readable license. Using well-known licenses clearly is important if you want your code to be attractive. Fourbyfour also uses the Developer Certificate of Origin.
- Use ci-fairy to ensure every commit has Singed-off-by and every merge request allows maintainer pushes.
- Good CI test coverage. Test even the pseudo-random number generator in the test suite that it roughly follows the intended distribution.
- CONTRIBUTING file. I believe that every open source project regardless of size needs this to set up the people's expectations when they see your project, whether you expect or accept contributions or not.

I you want to learn about numerical methods for matrices, I recommend the book Gene H. Golub, Charles F. van Loan, Matrix Computations. The Johns Hopkins University Press. I used the third edition, 1996, when implementing the Weston matrix inversion years ago.

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